An overview of sports-mediated brain injuries and their management approaches: a narrative review
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KIET School of Pharmacy, KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR, Ghaziabad, India
Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain
Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mo-haghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Natural Product & Medicinal Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu, India
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India
Departments of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, India
Department of Teacher Education and School Research, NLA University College, Oslo, Norway
Submission date: 2022-12-07
Acceptance date: 2024-04-03
Publication date: 2024-06-28
Corresponding author
Hadi Nobari   

Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
Luca Paolo Ardigò   

Department of Teacher Education and School Research, NLA University College, 0166 Oslo, Norway
Hum Mov. 2024;25(2):12-35
The objective of the present study was to provide an update on the 16 sports with the highest incidence of brain injuries. Thereafter, its diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies are discussed.

The manuscript addresses the brain-related injuries individually in each of the 16 sports with the highest incidence. To simplify the reading, the mentioned 16 sports are sorted alphabetically. A subpart mentioning the management of brainrelated sports injuries, including pharmacological management, is also included in the manuscript.

The incidence of sports-mediated brain injuries within hospital-based studies ranged between 3.5 and 31.5 per 100,000. One community-based study using multiple case ascertainment sources identified a higher incidence of 170 per 100,000. Brain injuries due to sports total 1.2–30.3% of all TBIs (traumatic brain injuries). Men have a higher prevalence than women (75.6% vs. 66.1%), and adolescents and young adults had the highest incidence of sports-mediated brain injuries. Almost 50% of head injuries reported during the practice of sports or recreational activities occur in bicycling, skateboarding, or skating incidents. More than 775,000 children, aged 14 and younger, are treated yearly in hospital emergency rooms for sports-related injuries.

Brain injuries are common in sports and difficult to manage, but athlete health and injury prevention should be the priority. Preventive measures should be stricter in sports with a higher incidence of brain injury. As for treatment, a comprehensive approach should be adopted.

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