Editor's Choice
State of mood, motivation, and impulsivity of young athletes: a cross-sectional study
More details
Hide details
Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil
University Centre of Anápolis, Anápolis, Brazil
Submission date: 2021-10-28
Acceptance date: 2022-04-26
Publication date: 2022-07-19
Hum Mov. 2023;24(1):86-92
The aim of the study was to compare the mood, motivation, and impulsivity of young athletes of different sexes and ages.

The sample consisted of 147 young student-athletes of both sexes, aged 12–17 years, participating in the regional stage of the Brazilian Youth School Games 2018. The individuals were categorized into 4 groups for analysis considering sex (male vs. female) and age (≤ 14 years and ≥ 15 years).

(1) Female athletes aged ≤ 14 years demonstrated greater instability of mood compared with males of the same age (p = 0.009). (2) Female athletes aged ≥ 15 years presented less energy and disposition than female athletes aged ≤ 14 years (p = 0.007) and males aged ≥ 15 years (p = 0.001). (3) Both female groups (aged ≤ 14 years and ≥ 15 years) had a higher score than the male group aged ≤ 14 years for lack of perseverance (p = 0.003 and p = 0.034, respectively) and lack of premeditation (p = 0.012 and p = 0.013, respectively).

The mood, motivation, and impulsivity of young athletes have varying characteristics in males and females and these variables are modulated by age.

Iturbide Luquin LM, Elosúa Oliden P. Perception of fair play in children and youth sport [in Spanish]. Rev Psicol Deporte. 2012;21(2):253–259.
Beni S, Fletcher T, Ní Chróinín D. Meaningful experiences in physical education and youth sport: a review of the literature. Quest. 2017;69(3):291–312; doi: 10.1080/00336297.2016.1224192.
Clancy RB, Herring MP, Campbell MJ. Motivation measures in sport: a critical review and bibliometric analysis. Front Psychol. 2017;8:348; doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00348.
Neal TL, Diamond AB, Goldman S, Liedtka KD, Mathis K, Morse ED, et al. Interassociation recommendations for developing a plan to recognize and refer student-athletes with psychological concerns at the secondary school level: a consensus statement. J Athl Train. 2015;50(3):231–249; doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-50.3.03.
Brenner JS. Sports specialization and intensive training in young athletes. Pediatrics. 2016;138(3):e20162148; doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2148.
De Lima Pinto JCB, Menezes TCB, de Sousa Fortes L, Mortatti AL. Monitoring stress, mood and recovery during successive basketball matches. J Phys Educ Sport. 2018;18(2):677–685; doi: 10.7752/jpes.2018.02099.
Yukhymenko-Lescroart MA. On identity and sport conduct of student-athletes: considering athletic and academic contexts. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2018;34:10–19; doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.09.006.
Gyomber N, Kovacs K, Lenart A. Do psychological factors play a crucial role in sport performance? – Research on personality and psychological variables of athletes in Hungary. Cuad Psicol Deporte. 2016;16(1):223–232.
Xue L, Zhai L, Guo C, Ma S, Wan B, Li X, et al. Acute effects of a single bout of high-intensity training on the mood of adolescent athletes. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Social Science, Public Health and Education (SSPHE 2018). Adv Soc Sci Educ Hum Res. 2019;196:301–303; doi: 10.2991/ssphe-18.2019.72.
Pshenychna L, Kondratyuk S, Shcherbak T, Kuzikov B, Kuzikova S. Individual-psychological features of athletes of a football team depending on the game role. J Phys Educ Sport. 2019;19(Suppl. 1):166–172; doi: 10.7752/jpes.2019.s1025.
Kotbagi G, Morvan Y, Romo L, Kern L. Which dimensions of impulsivity are related to problematic practice of physical exercise? J Behav Addict. 2017;6(2):221–228; doi: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.024.
Amorose AJ, Anderson-Butcher D. Exploring the independent and interactive effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling coaching behaviors on adoles cent athletes’ motivation for sport. Sport Exerc Perform Psychol. 2015;4(3):206–218; doi: 10.1037/spy0000038.
Martinent G, Campo M, Ferrand C. A descriptive study of emotional process during competition: nature, frequency, direction, duration and co-occurrence of discrete emotions. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2012;13(2):142–151; doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.10.006.
Silva JCG, Aniceto RR, Oliota-Ribeiro LS, Neto GR, Leandro LS, Cirilo-Sousa MS. Mood effects of blood flow restriction resistance exercise among basketball players. Percept Mot Skills. 2018;125(4):788–801; doi: 10.1177/0031512518776847.
Andrade A, Correia CK, da Cruz WM, Bevilacqua GG. Acute effect of exergames on children’s mood states during physical education classes. Games Health J. 2019;8(4):250–256; doi: 10.1089/g4h.2018.0083.
Chen X, Zhang G, Yin X, Li Y, Cao G, Gutiérrez-García C, et al. The relationship between self-efficacy and aggressive behavior in boxers: the mediating role of self-control. Front Psychol. 2019;10:212; doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00212.
Koo J-E, Lee G-U. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children’s optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment. J Exerc Rehabil. 2015;11(3):169–174; doi: 10.12965/jer.150210.
Stoyanova S, Giannouli V. Bulgarian students’ impulsivity differentiated by gender, age, and some scientific areas. Psychol Thought. 2018;11(2):138–147; doi: 10.5964/psyct.v11i2.250.
De Souza NP, de Oliveira Castro H, da Silva Guimaraes J, do Carmo AM, de Conti Teixeira Costa G. Motivational factors for sport: the case of soccer athletes aged between 12 and 17 years. Hum Mov. 2018;19(5):8–13; doi: 10.5114/hm.2018.77330.
Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am Psychol. 2000;55(1):68–78; doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.
MacDonald DJ, Côté J, Eys M, Deakin J. The role of enjoyment and motivational climate in relation to the personal development of team sport athletes. Sport Psychol. 2011;25(1):32–46; doi: 10.1123/tsp.25.1.32.
Wells JE, Welty Peachey J. Called to serve: exploring servant leadership in the context of sport-for-development. J Sport Development. 2016;4(7):12–24.
Telford RM, Telford RD, Olive LS, Cochrane T, Davey R. Why are girls less physically active than boys? Findings from the LOOK longitudinal study. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0150041; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150041.
De Miranda Rohlfs ICP, de Carvalho T, Rotta TM, Krebs RJ. Application of mood states validation instruments in the detection of the overtraining syndrome. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2004;10(2):117–121; doi: 10.1590/S1517-86922004000200005.
Lan MF, Lane AM, Roy J, Hanin NA. Validity of the Brunel Mood Scale for use with Malaysian athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 2012;11(1):131–135.
Albuquerque MR, Lopes MC, de Paula JJ, Faria LO, Pereira ET, da Costa VT. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the MPAM-R to Brazilian Portuguese and proposal of a new method to calculate factor scores. Front Psychol. 2017;8:261; doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00261.
Rice SM, Purcell R, De Silva S, Mawren D, McGorry PD, Parker AG. The mental health of elite athletes: a narrative systematic review. Sports Med. 2016;46(9):1333–1353; doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0492-2.
Nogueira CYS, Carvalho AM, Gauer G, Tavares N, de Miranda Monteiro Santos R, Ginani G, et al. Translation and adaptation of Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) to the Brazilian population. Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2013;10(2):79–85.
Chipkevitch E. Clinical assessment of sexual maturation in adolescents [in Portuguese]. J Pediatr. 2001;77(Suppl. 2):S135–S142; doi: 10.2223/jped.301.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top