Assessment of the correlation between the occurrence of fine movements of the hand, pre-frailty, and body composition in the elderly
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Wroclaw University of Health and Sport Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
Faculty of Physiotherapy, Wroclaw University of Health and Sport Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
Submission date: 2024-02-22
Acceptance date: 2024-02-28
Publication date: 2024-03-26
Corresponding author
Anna Sebastjan   

Wroclaw University of Health and Sport Sciences, I.J. Paderewskiego Avenue 35, 51-612 Wroclaw
Hum Mov. 2024;25(1):105-112
The main objective of the study was to evaluate the correlations between fine movements of the hand, the tissue composition of the upper limb, and the occurrence of frailty syndrome in elderly people in the Polish population.

The study included 998 individuals living alone aged 60 to 87 years. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were taken, tests of motor skills of the upper limbs and functional efficiency were performed, and the phenotype of physical weakness was assessed.

Participants identified as pre-frailty were observed to score less favourably in motor skills tests compared to other participants. The significance of the differences between the males and females was confirmed for most tests of precision, coordination, and speed of the upper limbs, in addition to the number of aiming errors. A correlation was observed between reduced fine movements of the hand and age, reduced functional efficiency, and low muscle mass of the upper limbs. Of all the included hand motor tests, only hand tremor scores in the stability test did not affect the risk of pre-frailty.

The study showed a significant, positive correlation between the fine movements of the hand, mainly with the weight and strength of the muscles of the upper limb, and negative in the case of the risk of frailty syndrome. It is advisable to focus on programs to raise awareness of the importance of physical activity, which translates into health and quality of life.

Lappin TR , Grier DG, Thompson A, Halliday HL. HOX genes: seductive science, mysterious mechanisms. Ulster Med J. 2006;75(1):23–31.
Manning JT. The finger book: sex, behaviour and disease revealed in the fingers. London: Faber and Faber; 2008.
Marzke MW. Evolutionary development of the human thumb. Hand Clin. 1992;8(1):1–8; doi: 10.1016/S0749- 0712(12)00687-9.
Aoyama T, Kohno Y. Temporal and quantitative variability in muscle electrical activity decreases as dexterous hand motor skills are learned. PLoS ONE. 2020; 15(7):e0236254; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236254.
Benda RN, Marinho NFS, Duarte MG, Ribeiro-Silva PC, Ortigas PR, Machado CF, et al. A brief review on motor development: fundamental motor skills as a basis for motor skill learning. Braz J Mot Behav. 2021;15(5): 342–355; doi: 10.20338/bjmb.v15i5.257.
Cerejeira J, Lagarto L, Mukaetova-Ladinska EB. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Front Neurol. 2012;3:73. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00073.
Ehsani H, Mohler MJ, O’Connor K, Zamrini E, Tirambulo C, Toosizadeh N. The association between cognition and dual-tasking among older adults: the effect of motor function type and cognition task difficulty. Clin Interv Aging. 2019;14:659–669; doi: 10.2147/CIA. S198697.
Chandler JM, Hadley EC. Exercise to improve physiologic and functional performance in old age. Clin Geriatrc Med. 1996;12(4):761–782.
Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(3): 146–156; doi:.
1093/Gerona/56.3.M146. 10. Łęt P, Polak Szabela AP, Porzych K. The process of human aging and involution changes in the brain. Med Biol Sci. 2013:27(4):23–26; doi: 10.12775/mbs-2013-0031.
Sebastjan A, Skrzek A, Ignasiak Z, Sławińska T. Agerelated changes in hand dominance and functional asymmetry in older adults. PLoS One. 2017;12(5): e0177845; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177845.
Fess EE. Grip strength. In: Casanova JS (ed.) Clinical assessment recommendations. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Society of Hand Therapists; 1992:41–45.
Jones CJ, Rikli RE. Measuring functional fitness in older adults. J Active Aging. 2002;1:24–30.
Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):1381–1395; doi: 10.1249/ 01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB.
Abizanda P, Romero L, Sanchez-Jurado PM, Martínez- Reig M, Alfonso-Silguero SA, Rodríguez-Mañas L. Age, frailty, disability, instutionalization, multimorbidity or comorbity. Which are the main targets in older adults? J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(6):622–627; doi: 10.1007/ s12603-014-0033-3.
Furtado G, Patrício M, Loureiro M, Teixeira AM, Ferreira JP. Physical fitness and frailty syndrome in institutionalized older women. Percept Mot Skills. 2017; 124(4):754–776; doi: 10.1177/0031512517709915.
Santos-Eggimann B, Cuénoud P, Spagnoli J, Junod J. Prevalence of frailty in middle-aged and older community dwelling Europeans living in 10 countries. J Gerontol A. 2009;64A(6):675–681; doi: 10.1093/gerona/glp012.
dos Santos Tavares DM, de Freitas Corrêa TA, Dias FA, dos Santos Ferreira PC, Sousa Pegorari M. Frailty syndrome and socioeconomic and health characteristics among older adults. Colomb Med. 2017;48(3):126–131; doi: 10.25100/cm.v48i3.1978.
García-Esquinas E, José García-García F, León-Muñoz LM, Carnicero JA, Guallar-Castillón P, Gonzalez- Colaço Harmand M, et al. Obesity, fat distribution, and risk of frailty in two population-based cohorts of older adults in Spain. Obesity. 2015;23(4):847–855; doi: 10.1002/oby.21013.
Hamer M, Lavoie KL, Bacon SL. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy aging: the English longitudinal study of aging. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(3): 239–243; doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092993.
Svantesson U, Jones J, Wolbert K, Alricsson M. Impact of physical activity on the self-perceived quality of life in non-frail older adults. J Clin Med Res. 2015;7(8):585– 593; doi: 10.14740/jocmr2021w.
Middleton LE, Barnes DE, Lui LY, Yaffe K. Physical activity over the life course and its association with cognitive performance and impairment in old age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58(7):1322–1326; doi: 10.1111/j.1532- 5415.2010.02903.x.
Bujnowska-Fedak MM, Waligóra J, d’Avanzo B, Holland C, Kurpas D. Approaches to therapy and prevention of frailty in the light of contemporary medicine. Fam Med Prim Care Rev. 2017;19(3):289–297; doi: 10.5114/ fmpcr.2017.69293.
GBD 2016 Neurology Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990– 2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019;18(5):459– 480; doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30499-X.
Fujisaki-Sueda-Sakai M, Takahashi K, Yoshizawa Y, Iijima K. Frailty checkup supporters’ intentions to participate in human-resource development and training activities. J Frailty Aging. 2020;9(4):238–43; doi: 10.14283/jfa.2020.6.
Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Effects of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012; 380(9838):219–229; doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61 031-9.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top